Mylenice Alle Informationen über das Skigebiet bei Myślenice und Skigebiete in der Nähe

Myślenice ist eine Stadt in der Woiwodschaft Kleinpolen in Polen. Sie ist Sitz des Powiats Myślenice und der gleichnamigen Stadt-und-Land-Gemeinde mit etwa. Die Gmina Myślenice ist eine Stadt-und-Land-Gemeinde im Powiat Myślenice in der Woiwodschaft Kleinpolen in Polen. Sitz von Powiat und Gemeinde ist die. Das REKLINIEC bietet Ihnen eine Unterkunft in Myślenice. Ein Restaurant ist ebenfalls vorhanden. Jedes Zimmer im Hotel verfügt über einen Kleiderschrank und. Myślenice ist ein Bergort in der polnischen Woiwodschaft Kleinpolen in den Makower Beskiden, im Mittelalter ca. einen Tagesritt südlich von Krakau auf dem​. Auf Tripadvisor finden Sie alles für Myslenice, Lesser Poland Province: unabhängige Bewertungen von Hotels, Restaurants und Sehenswürdigkeiten sowie.

Mylenice

Jetzt informieren über das Skigebiet bei Myślenice und Skigebiete in der Nähe. Alles zum Skifahren rund um Myślenice. Das REKLINIEC bietet Ihnen eine Unterkunft in Myślenice. Ein Restaurant ist ebenfalls vorhanden. Jedes Zimmer im Hotel verfügt über einen Kleiderschrank und. Träumen Sie von einem Urlaub mit der Familie in Myslenice? Mit einem Aufenthalt in diesem Ferienhaus wird Ihr Traum wahr! Das Haus bietet Platz auf 64 m². Die Unterkunft befindet sich 45 km von Nowy Targ entfernt. Anfang der zweiten Hälfte des Famosas encueradas Haustier Haustier erlaubt 4 Haustier nicht erlaubt 3. Nach dem Ende des Krieges mit Schweden wollte die Stadt zum alten Glanz zurückkehren und nutzte dazu das von Chaturbate wisconsin von Krakau verliehenen Rechtes im Jahr fünf Märkte durchzuführen. Entfernung: bis 15km bis 1km Mylenice 2km bis 3km bis 5km bis 10km bis 15km bis 25km bis 50km. Preise und Verfügbarkeit in Myslenice. Die Bondaage der Stadt wurde mit dem Adventure time futanari Überfall auf Polen unterbrochen. Nowy Targ 51 Hotels.

Aantal sterren 3 19 8. Pensjonat Stek. Apartament Myslenice. Route 7 Rooms. Hotel Krak. Villa Agnes. Apartment Poland. Willa Beskidzka.

Apartament Kurnik. Krzyszkowice , Krzyszkowice. Domek w Lesie. Chata Pod Lasem. Wrzosowe Zacisze. OWS Pod Kamiennikiem.

Dom z widokiem. Willa Memphis. Noclegi u Feliksa. Hotel Rancho Pcim. Holiday home Mogilany ul. Zielony Stok. After the War the devastated cemetery was restored by the Jewish Congregation in Krakow under the leadership of Meir Jakubowicz, brother of the writer of these words.

A new fence was erected. Those grave stones that were not standing in their place and broken into pieces were taken and according to ritual regulations attached to the cemetery wall.

A memorial plaque was placed by the gates to the destroyed cemetery and in the cemetery there is a monument to the unfortunate victims whom the Nazis murdered.

According to the documents found in the municipal archives in Krakow about 30 people were killed at that time. Holon In our town there was a yeshiva which had already been established in the 19 th century and was famous throughout all Western Galicia on account of its high standard of education.

It attracted pupils from neighbouring towns. The director of the yeshiva in the years was its founder, Rabbi Natan Aron Neiger, cousin of Chaim Neiger from Tarnow who was a Zionist activist known throughout Galicia.

The yeshiva owed its great development and high level of teaching to Neiger's outstanding talent as a teacher and extensive knowledge of the Talmud.

In former times the yeshiva was based in a property on ul Planty, later they moved to a rented dwelling by ul. In the end about 50 young people studied there and as we have already noted, it was the centre for the study of the Talmud for all the surrounding area.

Boarding students were invited to the tables of the local inhabitants. They slept in the Beit Hamidrash building on the second floor. Baruch Buchheister, Wolf Langsam, Szlomo Perlberg and others took care of their proper accommodation.

Up to small children studied in a place not designed for teaching on ul. The gmina was growing and in the end lacked space for new children.

The public protested about this. In order to get rid of this problem the Kahal resolved around to build their own school building, which they succeeded in doing within one year and realised thanks to the community's financial contributions.

The new building next to ul. Bisinskiej included 4 classrooms and two rooms for a prayer house called the Talmud Tora. About Jewish children studied in this school from the age of three until their Bar Mitzva, and from there they went for further study to the yeshiva.

All the children, concentrated in one place and divided into classes, could absorb knowledge according to a programme prepared in advance by qualified teachers, not like in other neighbouring gminas where, for the lack of a public building, the children were scattered in different cheders in all the extremities of the town and their education was not coordinated between their teachers.

The Kahal also built a mikveh which was managed by Kalman Bienenstock. Bikur Cholim Such an association existed and had as its task to give free medical help to poor people who were ill.

The leader was Aron Kempler, who gave a great deal of time and his own money to the association. The Tomchej Anijim association existed for years in the town, taking care that the poor, particularly those from outside the town, didn't have to go from house to house seeking alms.

They received assistance in one place. For this purpose all the inhabitants paid a monthly levy. Among the members of the board were Josef Weissberg and others.

There was a widespread custom in the town of distributing alms in a discreet manner. Thus every evening, particularly on a Friday, they distributed bakery goods and cooked food to the poor of the town.

When the Pesach holiday was approaching, the kahal distributed Matza Kimchi d'Pischa to the poor. In the final period Mordechai Natan Bittersfeld, dr.

Lazar Goldwasser, Izrael Karger, dr. One time when they got 5 mandates and the candidature of the priest failed, a Jew legally elected, Wolf Buchheister, resigned in his favour.

This success in elections was caused by the great interest of Jews in public life and their great participation in elections.

In spite of anti-semitism Jewish candidates were popular among all the people of the town and also got Catholic votes.

A loan institution existed in the town whose managers were Mosze Chaim Czapnik and Henoch Tiefenbrunner. Despite being a private institution, it gave to general needs and also awarded credit with a wide hand to poor traders and other persons in need.

Therefore with even greater respect it should be mentioned that this small town also had its short, however not less stormy, period of activity, and this thanks to a spontaneous effort of a small group of, at that time, enthusiastic people thanks to whom the town can write on the record of its otherwise poor history the history also of their own Zionist movement and in parallel the flourishing period for the development of social life which accompanied it.

One counted merely some souls which included about Jewish families. Distant from the centre of the voivodeship, the town of Krakow, by a mere 30 km.

A somewhat more active life and economic activity developed in later years thanks to the development of the tanning and fur industries.

I especially mention this in order to underline the contribution of the Laubentracht family in the development of this sphere of the economy, extending its production, exporting goods within the country and even abroad.

This feature did not differ from other small towns, in particular the neighbouring ones. As already stated, the overwhelming majority of the Jewish community of the small town were religious families, families which were highly orthodox, trying by all means to sustain the community's structure and ideas by bringing up their children and youth in this spirit and by protecting themselves from any new, especially secular ideas, which were a threat to the existing situation.

This wasn't however a shuttered up small shtetl and the sounds of life from nearby Krakow and neighbouring small towns managed to penetrate through to it.

And thus one certain day the idea of founding a Zionist organization emerged, modest and suitable for every aspiration, which means a general Zionist organisation, which at the same time would try to revive or create another social life with the participation of many, the masses.

It is known that the motor of all organisational life is primarily youth, and among them the main role falls on those young people who are learning, that is students and originating from them in due course, the professional intelligentsia.

How did these matters appear in our shtetl in the light of the social structure of the local Jewish community?

The shtetl was the centre of the powiat which was linked with a special privilege, the possession of a state gimnazium secondary school.

But it was impossible to imagine that the children of the orthodox homes would be sent to this school, in which in addition one studied on a Saturday.

This would be equivalent to breaking the rules of the faith. One could count the small number of Jewish children on the fingers of one hand, the so-called progressives, who were educated in this gimnazium or finished it to continue their study in a larger town.

After a break of several years there appeared three last pupils in one class, Erwin Zuckerman, Mendek Perlroth, and the author of these words.

Here I want to highlight a few words on Erwin Zuckerman of blessed memory. After obtaining his abitur high school certificate , he resigned from further studies in Poland and went on hachshara in eastern Malopolska and in went to Israel as a halutz and there joined a kibbutz.

He served with Haganah and took part in the War of Independence, and in his final years worked as a high official in the Electricity Society.

Unfortunately he died in about before we came to Israel, leaving a widow and son and daughter about 20 years old.

In these conditions an important role was played by the professional intelligentsia and the older generation, primarily from outside, who settled in the shtetl at different periods.

I will mention here the families: Dr. Karol Leibel, mgr. Vorschmidt, Winkler, Judge Dr. Jerzy Federgruen, mgr.

Syda Kranz, Dr. Loeffelholz I return to the central theme of these memoirs. And thus Hatikva was set up one day at the end of the nineteen thirties.

That was the first and probably the last general-Zionist organisation which was set up with the objective of stimulating social and community life and directing the interest of the Jewish community, a feature that had been a very active part of the life of other towns' Zionist organisations for a long time already.

The birth of this organisation was painful and its delivery was difficult. Because of fear of the influence of this organization on the female element of Orthodox youth, who were the overwhelming majority in the small town young men, of course, went for tradition through dress, study in the yeshiva, scrupulously saying their prayers, work and help in enterprises, during which the girls, having more time, and of course more interest in new life through reading many books, could be more susceptible to new ideas.

A defence action was started against the new organisation which got directly at the young, collecting written declarations that they wouldn't join Hatikva, and using all possible moral pressure on the families, and everything with participation of the rabbi and under his direction.

When these memoirs will be read today by the unfortunately not numerous descendants of the once orthodox families, today people in the prime of life, they should be able to forgive their families for their resistance and backwardness at the time.

This is how communities develop, learning from the mistakes of the past. How would we be happy if as many as possible among the conformists of that time had lived to the present day.

The first and probably the only person to act as chairman of this organisation was chosen spontaneously, Dr. Lazar Goldwasser, old Zionist activist, still coming from the generation of Theodore Herzl, who he knew personally in his youth.

His deputy became one of the most respected citizens in the town, Dawid Faden. The organisation had its management bodies, and activists, an executive, a treasurer, general secretary, librarian, theatre-music circle, and a commission for heterogeneous activities like the study of Hebrew, collections, sales of shekels and almonds from Erec Israel, the K.

Fund etc. Different semi-religious families were not spared internal fights within them. It is necessary therefore to remember many sympathisers who couldn't openly declare their support and acted in the form of supporting members.

The period of active life commenced. Performances for particular occasions, social evenings, tea and social games, lectures and the study of Hebrew, the appearance of their own musico-theatrical circle and guests from neighbouring towns, that was only a part of this life in which people from different classes, education and financial status participated.

In one word, it was making up for years of backwardness. Unfortunately these activities didn't have a chance to develop into a long-lasting movement, and to become an organic part of the life of the shtetl.

It was only active for a short time, certainly no more than three years, after which the emptiness returned as in the preceding years.

Without doubt the cause of its demise was a lack of those willing to take over and a lack of professional youth described above with the departure of part of the active youth, for instance to nearby Krakow , and the lack of substitutes.

Lack of advance is known to be regression. Thus the organisation started to contract. It had previously been based in beautiful premises, and later moved to a small room, and in the end completely stopped activity.

Even so it is all difficult for me to understand and I don't possess any precise data on this, why it happened and why its former activists lost energy and why the collapse of the organization was allowed to take place.

There were later attempts by a few, new young people, mainly immigrants to the town, to organize modern Zionist life, but already with the colours of political parties, however it undoubtedly didn't succeed, which was a distinct contrast in comparison with neighbouring towns where life pulsed intensively to the last days before the outbreak of war.

It is known to me that around the year there were attempts to resurrect a Zionist movement. A group of Zionist youth numbering several tens of members and sympathisers organised a centre under the name: Ognisko Akiba Akiba Centre and, as far as I can remember, it ran until the outbreak of war.

Because of fear of the devout, work was done in secrecy. Since virtually all of the members of this organisation perished in the Shoah, it is difficult today to recreate the activity of this movement.

Rut Stein, who emigrated to Germany and from there to Israel. The above memories don't encompass all there is to say on this topic. One could cite many interesting little things from that period but let it be my excuse that I was then a young boy in my teens and I am not able to remember many things from that time since I was not yet actively participating in their events and later, as I mentioned, the Hatikva organisation had ceased to exist.

If the above words reach those few participants in those distant days scattered throughout the world who are still alive, undoubtedly it will awaken their imagination, drawing into their memory pictures of those former times, and then the goal of sketching this short note will have been fulfilled.

Lazar Goldwasser. He sat for many years on the town council and in his hands was found a department for the care of the poor Jewish population.

Who doesn't remember his activity in this sphere, his battles without break for the civic rights of the Jewish population, to increase the care budget for the poor strata of the population living either in the centre of the town or in the suburban districts whose economic situation got worse from year to year as a result of the spread of anti-semitism.

With the needs of the Jewish population growing from day to day, the anxieties linked to this and the unbroken will of Dr.

Goldwasser to attain ever more for them led to stormy discussions during the town council sittings. It is worth remembering the famous attack of Doboszynski on the town in when anti-semitic tension reached its zenith.

It is not difficult to imagine what were his feelings at that time, the effects of which one didn't have long to wait for.

Pain, which wore him out, the natural sensitivity of his soul and his reaction against that which was happening broke out like a volcano in one of the sittings of the town council.

He didn't then hesitate to criticise in a courageous manner the action of the magistrate which had harmed the civil rights of the Jewish population and did not fulfil their elementary communal needs.

At this the Mayor stood up from his chair and running over to Dr. Goldwasser, slapped him on the face, the echoes of which resounded for a long time in our ears.

Goldwasser received this belittling action with the pride characterising all his life, not letting himself be terrorised and continuing his actions.

One of the most sensitive strings of his soul was his belief in Zionism. A strong Zionist, member of the Bnei Brith Lodge, follower of Herzl's view of the world, believing unshakeably that the Jewish state will rise up, sacrificing a great deal to that goal, both emotionally and materially.

He knew that the foundation on which to build this state is Jewish youth. Despite all the difficulties accumulating on his road he managed through hard work to remove numerous difficult obstacles and assemble around himself a centre of progressive youth and even older citizens, establishing a Zionist organisation under the name Hatikva.

Of course the main pillar of this organisation was Dr. With time this organisation developed and took action in many directions, organising lectures, performances, trips, it was a place for meetings of young Zionists, with, the main goal of promoting Zionist consciousness in youth and the conviction that their place wasn't here, but there, through organising the ranks of pioneer builders of a Jewish state.

Let me cite one little episode, but very characteristic of Dr. One evening, at the end of , when one could already feel that something was happening, we met in the house of my unforgettable parents, Dr.

Goldwasser with his wife Hermina, his only son who was a graduate of the Sorbonne in Paris and teacher of philosophy, and the writer of these words.

In a break in the conversation, touching on this and that, Dr. Goldwasser started to talk on a theme that was his favourite for discussion, Dr.

Herzl in Vienna, whom he had met in what he considered the greatest event in his life. His face lit up talking of this happy memory, and he grew more animated minute by minute.

It could be seen that in this moment his thoughts carried him to a room in the flat of Dr. Herzl and his dreams of an Israeli state. Two great tears like diamonds trickled suddenly from the eye of the speaker, his voice broke in his larynx, and a deep quiet filled the room.

That was his world. Thus internally he needed to help the other thoughts affecting him, sensitivity to the suffering of his own nation.

Turning over and over in his brain ideas on which avenue to follow and which means to use to reach this goal led to the birth one day of the idea of creating a bank for giving loans without interest and with favourable conditions using the support of the funds of the Joint, that is the Kasy Gemilat Chesec.

He was head of this bank from its creation until the day of the outbreak of the Second World War. The bank brought many good things to the small craftsmen, different door to door salesmen and quite simply the poor.

Who from among us doesn't remember the Jewish door to door salesmen, wandering day by day and night by night from one house to the next in order to earn a crust of dry bread for their family?

Those were the people under the care of Dr. It is somewhat difficult to formulate in a few words the exact life-story of this man. I have limited myself to citing these few slim facts about a life so fruitful.

Let these words be a monument to the memory of the one who dedicated his whole life to his nation. Both after the attack and during the court case the town found itself in the columns of all the Polish press.

Much was written and said about this, including abroad, even in America, perhaps more than other pogroms. The reason for the great impression that this pogrom made on the world is easy to understand.

In other towns the main motive for the excesses was a desire to rob and enrich themselves at the expense of the Jews through seizing Jewish goods and possessions.

However the principal objective was through the attack on the powiat authority and the police station to provoke similar attacks throughout the whole country and in this manner to stir up chaos and disturbance in all towns and using this opportunity to overthrow the hated government and install a fascist regime.

The Jews served only as a means, like a tool for attaining this objective according to the system tried out by Hitler with such success in Germany.

That was the situation of the Jews in the diaspora - the innocent were to serve as scapegoats in a time of battle and conflict between the political parties of certain states.

Three groups totalling over people launched the attack in the morning and entered the town singing religious songs.

Before everything they cut the telephone connection, after which one group broke into the police station, disarming the policemen on duty, and after demolishing the building they took rifles and ammunition, the second made an attack on the starosta's house and plundered this completely.

The starosta escaped only by a miracle thanks to the quick-thinking of his servant who presented him as an arriving guest and the starosta as being away from home.

The third group set about knocking down the doors of the Jewish shops, dragging all their goods out into the street, piling them up, and afterwards covering them with petrol and burning them.

During the court case the leaders of the pogrom and their defenders used the courtroom to charge the Jews of bringing communism, that they were motors of the communist party in Poland, arguing in that way that they are worthy of total extermination.

Biological racial hatred of Jews was revealed by Doboszynski, applying to the court to remove press correspondents from the courtroom, aggressively attacking converts to Christianity.

This was revealed by the ironic comments of the defendants that even the Jewish premier of France, Leon Blum, didn't wish to open the gates of Madagascar to Jewish emigration, and they cited the words of the famous renegade convert, Jakub Frank, who had said that Poland is a land of Israel and Krakow is Jerusalem etc.

Unfortunately a part of the Polish community was also on the side of Doboszynski and his associates the evidence of which could be seen at the end of the first criminal process against him in front of the jury court in Krakow in June When the question of his guilt was put to the 12 jurors they unanimously gave a negative answer.

The state judges were forced to waive the verdict and refer the case to the next session of the jurors to look at it again. Only during the second criminal process was Doboszynski found guilty of the crimes he was accused of and condemned to a term of imprisonment.

The other accused were judged before the common court and sentenced to different penalties during the criminal process, which took place in Krakow before the common court on 20 th May th June Doboszynski came to a pitiful end.

After the War he was active in diversionary actions and sabotage against the communist government in Poland, for which he was arrested, put before the court and condemned to death, which penalty was carried out.

Note: There are an additional 8 pages of text in the Hebrew edition of this Yizkor Book providing contemporary reports on Doboszynki's attack which are not translated in the Polish version.

The small town was only about 20km from the Slovak border. The entry of the German army was going to take place at any moment. The Polish army retreated without a fight.

The catastrophe happened suddenly. Even a day beforehand we all lived in the illusion that the Polish-German conflict would be resolved peacefully.

Now everyone was overwhelmed with one concern, how to save life and no attention was paid to the fact that all possessions would fall into enemy hands.

As early as Saturday, the second day of the War, Myslenice's Jews had already fled chaotically from the town and without any sort of plan. They fled in the direction of Bochnia and Tarnow.

Apart from Jakub Baruch Ringler, Jozef Weissberg and Basia Gassner, who stayed in the town due to their poor state of health, all the Jews left the town.

Basia Gassner was the first victim of the war. She was burnt alive in her house during the retreat of the Polish army and their destruction of the bridge in the centre of town.

The bridge burnt down and with it her home standing nearby. After a few weeks almost half the Jews, numbering about souls before the War, had returned back.

Those who returned were those who had not succeeded in escaping to the East due to lack of means of travel or had been surrounded by the Germans during their escape.

When they came back they found their shops robbed and confiscated by the Germans and given to Poles who declared themselves belonging to the Volksdeutsche German nationality.

Only the bakery of Miriam Kunstlinger stayed in her hands in order to bake bread for the Jewish people. From the beginning of the occupation the Gestapo kept going around Jewish houses taking Jews to forced labour, clearing the streets, getting rid of snow, cutting wood etc.

A cruel attitude was shown to Jews during the work. Michel Rosenthal, the son-in-law of Miriam Kunstlinger mentioned above, was killed during cruel torture in the municipal school.

He was thus the first victim of the Nazis in Myslenice. After several weeks a kahal was organized. From this time they were responsible for planning the work programme and keeping order when allocating work.

The Germans had the habit of designating 10 people as hostages answering for the safety of the German administration and institutions.

During the period when these people were hostages, a grenade was thrown at the post office in Myslenice by the Polish resistance.

Everyone sent to that prison, Abraham Goldblum included, did not return. In a group of Jews was arrested during an action to clean the town of communist elements.

Some very religious people were among them, such as the chairman of the kahal, Morris Neiger, Moshe Perlroth, and Eliasz Neumann with his three sons.

They were also sent to the prison mentioned above and tortured. After a few weeks they all returned except Eliasz Neumann who was tortured to death in prison.

However the state of health of Moshe Perlroth was so appalling on his return home that after several weeks he passed away as well.

The material situation of the Jews got worse day by day. They were forbidden to trade. Even everyday food had to be secretly bought from the country dwellers.

If they ran low on money, they had to sell all the items they had in their homes to the Poles for whatever price they could get.

The kahal had to give aid to those people who were sent to forced labour and to support the poor who didn't have anything left to sell. They also had to give bribes to the Gestapo.

To keep up with this the kahal imposed heavy taxes on the Jews. Every few days draconian new regulations came along, such as preventing Jews from going out of their homes on certain days, e.

When the Germans arrived in town they turned the synagogue into a stable for the rural police who had established a based in Myslenice, and when they left the synagogue was turned into a warehouse for the corn that the country people brought to the town for the Nazi authorities.

The Jews were forced to burn all the Torah scrolls and holy books with their own hands. Unlike other small towns, the Nazis didn't destroy the synagogue structure and after the war it was used by Poles for different purposes.

Immediately after the War broke out, Poles broke into the Talmud Torah building and converted it into a residential home, and it serves this function to this day.

From the moment of the outbreak of War until mid several transports were organized from Myslenice to forced labour in Krakow and Debice. Only a very small handful managed to escape from these and return to town.

In August there was the final deportation to the transit camp in Skawina and from there to Belzec. There was a compulsory contribution demanded from the victims of the deportation to cover the costs of transporting them.

On a particular Saturday they procured wagons from the surrounding area and gave an order for Jews to appear at a given place.

There they forced them to get into the wagons and under police escort armed with firearms, took them to Skawina where they stayed several days, after which they took them to the extermination camp in Belzec by train.

In the Yizkor Book of Kalwaria is a note that on 3. It therefore seems certain that the Myslenice Jews were found in this train and this date has been taken as that of their final deportation.

Furthermore I received the last news on this transport from my father on 25 th Elul, via a postcard sent from Basznia Dolna, the last railway station before Belzec.

My father knew the address of my brother who was in a work camp in Krakow and addressed this postcard to him.

This had a postmark of 5. In this transport there were Jews from Myslenice. Not one of these was saved. They all died. I alone was saved by a miracle.

The order for the deportation was already known by the municipal authorities at the beginning of the week and an official I knew who was employed in the town hall revealed the secret to me, and the risk of death threatening those who were captured trying to attempt to escape.

I wrote straight away to my brother who was in Krakow. He bought off an SSman who sent a lorry to the edge of Myslenice. I and several other people went to the lorry and hid in it under the tarpaulin until we reached Krakow.

They didn't examine documents along the road as the Gestapo man was wearing Nazi uniform. In Krakow I entered a work camp and this saved my life.

At the end of the War it turned out that from those people who were in work camps and those who had succeeded in escaping before the final deportation, altogether about 20 people survived.

Apart from these, a small number of people survived from those who in Sep. As a result, from people who were there at the outbreak of War, the claws of the Nazis destroyed about people.

Nowhere in the Krakow region had such Dante-like scenes taken place as in this tragic little town. The town had not yet recovered properly after the March on Myslenice by Doboszynski, famous all over Poland, during which a group of peasants led by Ing.

Doboszynski had robbed, damaged and trampled on the possessions of the poor merchants who were the Myslenice Jews.

On the way to my native Bielsko I stopped in Myslenice because my father came from the town. Unfortunately all the stories about what had been happening in Myslenice turned out to be true.

Jews were being tied to cars and asked to run. Whoever could not sustain the speed was dragged until he gave up the ghost in horrible agony.

There were the most refined methods of sadism through which tens of people died. Even Polish people, who watched those performances themselves in the beginning with satisfaction and internal contentment, were terrified by these horrible things later on.

The second time I came to Myslenice with my father to stay for longer. This was when we returned from the famous Eichmann transport to Nisko in October when the Russians put us in jail in Rawa Ruska and returned us to the Germans.

We couldn't go back home since in the meantime Bielsko had been annexed to the Third Reich and the border followed the River Skawa.

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Noclegi u Feliksa. When War broke out the Germans arrested him, as ex-Chairman of the kahal, and sent him to Montelupich prison in Krakow where he was maltreated in a dreadful manner.

He was very much liked and respected in the town on account of his personal character and his social work. David Jakubowicz In the first years of existence of the settlement people only prayed in private minyans.

With the growth in the number of inhabitants, a large synagogue was built in There was also a prayer house of the Sieniawa Hassids in which the functions of gabbaim were filled by Eliezer Mordechai Aftergut and Menachim Lustig.

In the Talmud Tora building, which was built in , there was a minyan for adults. On Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur it was full to the brim with those praying.

This work was performed in our times by Szalom Klarman and Mosze Zollman, who distinguished themselves with a good character and a deep knowledge of the prescriptions concerning ritual killing.

Szalom Klarman met a cruel fate. There the Nazis reached him. Being on the street and seeing the Gestapo getting near to him in order to arrest him, he went into the church, having found himself in the vicinity of a place in which he believed that he would save himself.

But the Gestapo ran after him and killed him in the church itself. They were so cruel that they didn't even hesitate to shed blood in a place that is holy to every Christian.

It lies beside the main road leading to Krakow at a distance of 2km from the town. The dead from the surrounding area were also buried there.

The gabbaim in our period were Meir Kaufteil and Nachman Stiel and others whose names it is difficult to bring to mind today. All fulfilled that heavy duty with charity and with commitment, not taking any reward.

The family of Nachman Stiel and his wife Miriam were among the most respected in the town. The uncle of Miriam Stiel, Rabbi Natan Aron Neiger, was the leader of the yeshiva in the town, of which we write below in the section on the Talmud Tora.

All the family died in the holocaust apart from the daughter Jafa Kirschenbaum who immediately after the Doboszynski attack in left the town and settled in Israel.

She currently lives in Tel Aviv. Words are said on this Saturday in the section below on the extermination. The latecomers were shot in the cemetery and buried in a common grave [1].

The cemetery was destroyed by the Nazis, the fence torn down, memorials smashed and some of them used to repair the footways of streets in the centre of the town.

Only 5 graves remained untouched and stand to this day in their place. After the War the devastated cemetery was restored by the Jewish Congregation in Krakow under the leadership of Meir Jakubowicz, brother of the writer of these words.

A new fence was erected. Those grave stones that were not standing in their place and broken into pieces were taken and according to ritual regulations attached to the cemetery wall.

A memorial plaque was placed by the gates to the destroyed cemetery and in the cemetery there is a monument to the unfortunate victims whom the Nazis murdered.

According to the documents found in the municipal archives in Krakow about 30 people were killed at that time.

Holon In our town there was a yeshiva which had already been established in the 19 th century and was famous throughout all Western Galicia on account of its high standard of education.

It attracted pupils from neighbouring towns. The director of the yeshiva in the years was its founder, Rabbi Natan Aron Neiger, cousin of Chaim Neiger from Tarnow who was a Zionist activist known throughout Galicia.

The yeshiva owed its great development and high level of teaching to Neiger's outstanding talent as a teacher and extensive knowledge of the Talmud.

In former times the yeshiva was based in a property on ul Planty, later they moved to a rented dwelling by ul. In the end about 50 young people studied there and as we have already noted, it was the centre for the study of the Talmud for all the surrounding area.

Boarding students were invited to the tables of the local inhabitants. They slept in the Beit Hamidrash building on the second floor. Baruch Buchheister, Wolf Langsam, Szlomo Perlberg and others took care of their proper accommodation.

Up to small children studied in a place not designed for teaching on ul. The gmina was growing and in the end lacked space for new children.

The public protested about this. In order to get rid of this problem the Kahal resolved around to build their own school building, which they succeeded in doing within one year and realised thanks to the community's financial contributions.

The new building next to ul. Bisinskiej included 4 classrooms and two rooms for a prayer house called the Talmud Tora.

About Jewish children studied in this school from the age of three until their Bar Mitzva, and from there they went for further study to the yeshiva.

All the children, concentrated in one place and divided into classes, could absorb knowledge according to a programme prepared in advance by qualified teachers, not like in other neighbouring gminas where, for the lack of a public building, the children were scattered in different cheders in all the extremities of the town and their education was not coordinated between their teachers.

The Kahal also built a mikveh which was managed by Kalman Bienenstock. Bikur Cholim Such an association existed and had as its task to give free medical help to poor people who were ill.

The leader was Aron Kempler, who gave a great deal of time and his own money to the association. The Tomchej Anijim association existed for years in the town, taking care that the poor, particularly those from outside the town, didn't have to go from house to house seeking alms.

They received assistance in one place. For this purpose all the inhabitants paid a monthly levy. Among the members of the board were Josef Weissberg and others.

There was a widespread custom in the town of distributing alms in a discreet manner. Thus every evening, particularly on a Friday, they distributed bakery goods and cooked food to the poor of the town.

When the Pesach holiday was approaching, the kahal distributed Matza Kimchi d'Pischa to the poor. In the final period Mordechai Natan Bittersfeld, dr.

Lazar Goldwasser, Izrael Karger, dr. One time when they got 5 mandates and the candidature of the priest failed, a Jew legally elected, Wolf Buchheister, resigned in his favour.

This success in elections was caused by the great interest of Jews in public life and their great participation in elections.

In spite of anti-semitism Jewish candidates were popular among all the people of the town and also got Catholic votes.

A loan institution existed in the town whose managers were Mosze Chaim Czapnik and Henoch Tiefenbrunner. Despite being a private institution, it gave to general needs and also awarded credit with a wide hand to poor traders and other persons in need.

Therefore with even greater respect it should be mentioned that this small town also had its short, however not less stormy, period of activity, and this thanks to a spontaneous effort of a small group of, at that time, enthusiastic people thanks to whom the town can write on the record of its otherwise poor history the history also of their own Zionist movement and in parallel the flourishing period for the development of social life which accompanied it.

One counted merely some souls which included about Jewish families. Distant from the centre of the voivodeship, the town of Krakow, by a mere 30 km.

A somewhat more active life and economic activity developed in later years thanks to the development of the tanning and fur industries. I especially mention this in order to underline the contribution of the Laubentracht family in the development of this sphere of the economy, extending its production, exporting goods within the country and even abroad.

This feature did not differ from other small towns, in particular the neighbouring ones. As already stated, the overwhelming majority of the Jewish community of the small town were religious families, families which were highly orthodox, trying by all means to sustain the community's structure and ideas by bringing up their children and youth in this spirit and by protecting themselves from any new, especially secular ideas, which were a threat to the existing situation.

This wasn't however a shuttered up small shtetl and the sounds of life from nearby Krakow and neighbouring small towns managed to penetrate through to it.

And thus one certain day the idea of founding a Zionist organization emerged, modest and suitable for every aspiration, which means a general Zionist organisation, which at the same time would try to revive or create another social life with the participation of many, the masses.

It is known that the motor of all organisational life is primarily youth, and among them the main role falls on those young people who are learning, that is students and originating from them in due course, the professional intelligentsia.

How did these matters appear in our shtetl in the light of the social structure of the local Jewish community? The shtetl was the centre of the powiat which was linked with a special privilege, the possession of a state gimnazium secondary school.

But it was impossible to imagine that the children of the orthodox homes would be sent to this school, in which in addition one studied on a Saturday.

This would be equivalent to breaking the rules of the faith. One could count the small number of Jewish children on the fingers of one hand, the so-called progressives, who were educated in this gimnazium or finished it to continue their study in a larger town.

After a break of several years there appeared three last pupils in one class, Erwin Zuckerman, Mendek Perlroth, and the author of these words.

Here I want to highlight a few words on Erwin Zuckerman of blessed memory. After obtaining his abitur high school certificate , he resigned from further studies in Poland and went on hachshara in eastern Malopolska and in went to Israel as a halutz and there joined a kibbutz.

He served with Haganah and took part in the War of Independence, and in his final years worked as a high official in the Electricity Society.

Unfortunately he died in about before we came to Israel, leaving a widow and son and daughter about 20 years old.

In these conditions an important role was played by the professional intelligentsia and the older generation, primarily from outside, who settled in the shtetl at different periods.

I will mention here the families: Dr. Karol Leibel, mgr. Vorschmidt, Winkler, Judge Dr. Jerzy Federgruen, mgr. Syda Kranz, Dr. Loeffelholz I return to the central theme of these memoirs.

And thus Hatikva was set up one day at the end of the nineteen thirties. That was the first and probably the last general-Zionist organisation which was set up with the objective of stimulating social and community life and directing the interest of the Jewish community, a feature that had been a very active part of the life of other towns' Zionist organisations for a long time already.

The birth of this organisation was painful and its delivery was difficult. Because of fear of the influence of this organization on the female element of Orthodox youth, who were the overwhelming majority in the small town young men, of course, went for tradition through dress, study in the yeshiva, scrupulously saying their prayers, work and help in enterprises, during which the girls, having more time, and of course more interest in new life through reading many books, could be more susceptible to new ideas.

A defence action was started against the new organisation which got directly at the young, collecting written declarations that they wouldn't join Hatikva, and using all possible moral pressure on the families, and everything with participation of the rabbi and under his direction.

When these memoirs will be read today by the unfortunately not numerous descendants of the once orthodox families, today people in the prime of life, they should be able to forgive their families for their resistance and backwardness at the time.

This is how communities develop, learning from the mistakes of the past. How would we be happy if as many as possible among the conformists of that time had lived to the present day.

The first and probably the only person to act as chairman of this organisation was chosen spontaneously, Dr.

Lazar Goldwasser, old Zionist activist, still coming from the generation of Theodore Herzl, who he knew personally in his youth.

His deputy became one of the most respected citizens in the town, Dawid Faden. The organisation had its management bodies, and activists, an executive, a treasurer, general secretary, librarian, theatre-music circle, and a commission for heterogeneous activities like the study of Hebrew, collections, sales of shekels and almonds from Erec Israel, the K.

Fund etc. Different semi-religious families were not spared internal fights within them. It is necessary therefore to remember many sympathisers who couldn't openly declare their support and acted in the form of supporting members.

The period of active life commenced. Performances for particular occasions, social evenings, tea and social games, lectures and the study of Hebrew, the appearance of their own musico-theatrical circle and guests from neighbouring towns, that was only a part of this life in which people from different classes, education and financial status participated.

In one word, it was making up for years of backwardness. Unfortunately these activities didn't have a chance to develop into a long-lasting movement, and to become an organic part of the life of the shtetl.

It was only active for a short time, certainly no more than three years, after which the emptiness returned as in the preceding years.

Without doubt the cause of its demise was a lack of those willing to take over and a lack of professional youth described above with the departure of part of the active youth, for instance to nearby Krakow , and the lack of substitutes.

Lack of advance is known to be regression. Thus the organisation started to contract. It had previously been based in beautiful premises, and later moved to a small room, and in the end completely stopped activity.

Even so it is all difficult for me to understand and I don't possess any precise data on this, why it happened and why its former activists lost energy and why the collapse of the organization was allowed to take place.

There were later attempts by a few, new young people, mainly immigrants to the town, to organize modern Zionist life, but already with the colours of political parties, however it undoubtedly didn't succeed, which was a distinct contrast in comparison with neighbouring towns where life pulsed intensively to the last days before the outbreak of war.

It is known to me that around the year there were attempts to resurrect a Zionist movement. A group of Zionist youth numbering several tens of members and sympathisers organised a centre under the name: Ognisko Akiba Akiba Centre and, as far as I can remember, it ran until the outbreak of war.

Because of fear of the devout, work was done in secrecy. Since virtually all of the members of this organisation perished in the Shoah, it is difficult today to recreate the activity of this movement.

Rut Stein, who emigrated to Germany and from there to Israel. The above memories don't encompass all there is to say on this topic.

One could cite many interesting little things from that period but let it be my excuse that I was then a young boy in my teens and I am not able to remember many things from that time since I was not yet actively participating in their events and later, as I mentioned, the Hatikva organisation had ceased to exist.

If the above words reach those few participants in those distant days scattered throughout the world who are still alive, undoubtedly it will awaken their imagination, drawing into their memory pictures of those former times, and then the goal of sketching this short note will have been fulfilled.

Lazar Goldwasser. He sat for many years on the town council and in his hands was found a department for the care of the poor Jewish population. Who doesn't remember his activity in this sphere, his battles without break for the civic rights of the Jewish population, to increase the care budget for the poor strata of the population living either in the centre of the town or in the suburban districts whose economic situation got worse from year to year as a result of the spread of anti-semitism.

With the needs of the Jewish population growing from day to day, the anxieties linked to this and the unbroken will of Dr. Goldwasser to attain ever more for them led to stormy discussions during the town council sittings.

It is worth remembering the famous attack of Doboszynski on the town in when anti-semitic tension reached its zenith.

It is not difficult to imagine what were his feelings at that time, the effects of which one didn't have long to wait for. Pain, which wore him out, the natural sensitivity of his soul and his reaction against that which was happening broke out like a volcano in one of the sittings of the town council.

He didn't then hesitate to criticise in a courageous manner the action of the magistrate which had harmed the civil rights of the Jewish population and did not fulfil their elementary communal needs.

At this the Mayor stood up from his chair and running over to Dr. Goldwasser, slapped him on the face, the echoes of which resounded for a long time in our ears.

Goldwasser received this belittling action with the pride characterising all his life, not letting himself be terrorised and continuing his actions.

One of the most sensitive strings of his soul was his belief in Zionism. A strong Zionist, member of the Bnei Brith Lodge, follower of Herzl's view of the world, believing unshakeably that the Jewish state will rise up, sacrificing a great deal to that goal, both emotionally and materially.

He knew that the foundation on which to build this state is Jewish youth. Despite all the difficulties accumulating on his road he managed through hard work to remove numerous difficult obstacles and assemble around himself a centre of progressive youth and even older citizens, establishing a Zionist organisation under the name Hatikva.

Of course the main pillar of this organisation was Dr. With time this organisation developed and took action in many directions, organising lectures, performances, trips, it was a place for meetings of young Zionists, with, the main goal of promoting Zionist consciousness in youth and the conviction that their place wasn't here, but there, through organising the ranks of pioneer builders of a Jewish state.

Let me cite one little episode, but very characteristic of Dr. One evening, at the end of , when one could already feel that something was happening, we met in the house of my unforgettable parents, Dr.

Goldwasser with his wife Hermina, his only son who was a graduate of the Sorbonne in Paris and teacher of philosophy, and the writer of these words.

In a break in the conversation, touching on this and that, Dr. Goldwasser started to talk on a theme that was his favourite for discussion, Dr.

Herzl in Vienna, whom he had met in what he considered the greatest event in his life. His face lit up talking of this happy memory, and he grew more animated minute by minute.

It could be seen that in this moment his thoughts carried him to a room in the flat of Dr. Herzl and his dreams of an Israeli state.

Two great tears like diamonds trickled suddenly from the eye of the speaker, his voice broke in his larynx, and a deep quiet filled the room.

That was his world. Thus internally he needed to help the other thoughts affecting him, sensitivity to the suffering of his own nation.

Turning over and over in his brain ideas on which avenue to follow and which means to use to reach this goal led to the birth one day of the idea of creating a bank for giving loans without interest and with favourable conditions using the support of the funds of the Joint, that is the Kasy Gemilat Chesec.

He was head of this bank from its creation until the day of the outbreak of the Second World War. The bank brought many good things to the small craftsmen, different door to door salesmen and quite simply the poor.

Who from among us doesn't remember the Jewish door to door salesmen, wandering day by day and night by night from one house to the next in order to earn a crust of dry bread for their family?

Those were the people under the care of Dr. It is somewhat difficult to formulate in a few words the exact life-story of this man.

I have limited myself to citing these few slim facts about a life so fruitful. Let these words be a monument to the memory of the one who dedicated his whole life to his nation.

Both after the attack and during the court case the town found itself in the columns of all the Polish press. Much was written and said about this, including abroad, even in America, perhaps more than other pogroms.

The reason for the great impression that this pogrom made on the world is easy to understand. In other towns the main motive for the excesses was a desire to rob and enrich themselves at the expense of the Jews through seizing Jewish goods and possessions.

However the principal objective was through the attack on the powiat authority and the police station to provoke similar attacks throughout the whole country and in this manner to stir up chaos and disturbance in all towns and using this opportunity to overthrow the hated government and install a fascist regime.

The Jews served only as a means, like a tool for attaining this objective according to the system tried out by Hitler with such success in Germany.

That was the situation of the Jews in the diaspora - the innocent were to serve as scapegoats in a time of battle and conflict between the political parties of certain states.

Three groups totalling over people launched the attack in the morning and entered the town singing religious songs. Before everything they cut the telephone connection, after which one group broke into the police station, disarming the policemen on duty, and after demolishing the building they took rifles and ammunition, the second made an attack on the starosta's house and plundered this completely.

The starosta escaped only by a miracle thanks to the quick-thinking of his servant who presented him as an arriving guest and the starosta as being away from home.

The third group set about knocking down the doors of the Jewish shops, dragging all their goods out into the street, piling them up, and afterwards covering them with petrol and burning them.

During the court case the leaders of the pogrom and their defenders used the courtroom to charge the Jews of bringing communism, that they were motors of the communist party in Poland, arguing in that way that they are worthy of total extermination.

Biological racial hatred of Jews was revealed by Doboszynski, applying to the court to remove press correspondents from the courtroom, aggressively attacking converts to Christianity.

This was revealed by the ironic comments of the defendants that even the Jewish premier of France, Leon Blum, didn't wish to open the gates of Madagascar to Jewish emigration, and they cited the words of the famous renegade convert, Jakub Frank, who had said that Poland is a land of Israel and Krakow is Jerusalem etc.

Unfortunately a part of the Polish community was also on the side of Doboszynski and his associates the evidence of which could be seen at the end of the first criminal process against him in front of the jury court in Krakow in June When the question of his guilt was put to the 12 jurors they unanimously gave a negative answer.

The state judges were forced to waive the verdict and refer the case to the next session of the jurors to look at it again. Only during the second criminal process was Doboszynski found guilty of the crimes he was accused of and condemned to a term of imprisonment.

The other accused were judged before the common court and sentenced to different penalties during the criminal process, which took place in Krakow before the common court on 20 th May th June Doboszynski came to a pitiful end.

After the War he was active in diversionary actions and sabotage against the communist government in Poland, for which he was arrested, put before the court and condemned to death, which penalty was carried out.

Note: There are an additional 8 pages of text in the Hebrew edition of this Yizkor Book providing contemporary reports on Doboszynki's attack which are not translated in the Polish version.

The small town was only about 20km from the Slovak border. The entry of the German army was going to take place at any moment. The Polish army retreated without a fight.

The catastrophe happened suddenly. Even a day beforehand we all lived in the illusion that the Polish-German conflict would be resolved peacefully.

Now everyone was overwhelmed with one concern, how to save life and no attention was paid to the fact that all possessions would fall into enemy hands.

As early as Saturday, the second day of the War, Myslenice's Jews had already fled chaotically from the town and without any sort of plan. They fled in the direction of Bochnia and Tarnow.

Apart from Jakub Baruch Ringler, Jozef Weissberg and Basia Gassner, who stayed in the town due to their poor state of health, all the Jews left the town.

Basia Gassner was the first victim of the war. She was burnt alive in her house during the retreat of the Polish army and their destruction of the bridge in the centre of town.

The bridge burnt down and with it her home standing nearby. After a few weeks almost half the Jews, numbering about souls before the War, had returned back.

Those who returned were those who had not succeeded in escaping to the East due to lack of means of travel or had been surrounded by the Germans during their escape.

When they came back they found their shops robbed and confiscated by the Germans and given to Poles who declared themselves belonging to the Volksdeutsche German nationality.

Only the bakery of Miriam Kunstlinger stayed in her hands in order to bake bread for the Jewish people. From the beginning of the occupation the Gestapo kept going around Jewish houses taking Jews to forced labour, clearing the streets, getting rid of snow, cutting wood etc.

A cruel attitude was shown to Jews during the work. Michel Rosenthal, the son-in-law of Miriam Kunstlinger mentioned above, was killed during cruel torture in the municipal school.

He was thus the first victim of the Nazis in Myslenice. After several weeks a kahal was organized. From this time they were responsible for planning the work programme and keeping order when allocating work.

The Germans had the habit of designating 10 people as hostages answering for the safety of the German administration and institutions.

During the period when these people were hostages, a grenade was thrown at the post office in Myslenice by the Polish resistance. Everyone sent to that prison, Abraham Goldblum included, did not return.

In a group of Jews was arrested during an action to clean the town of communist elements. Some very religious people were among them, such as the chairman of the kahal, Morris Neiger, Moshe Perlroth, and Eliasz Neumann with his three sons.

They were also sent to the prison mentioned above and tortured. After a few weeks they all returned except Eliasz Neumann who was tortured to death in prison.

However the state of health of Moshe Perlroth was so appalling on his return home that after several weeks he passed away as well.

The material situation of the Jews got worse day by day. They were forbidden to trade. Even everyday food had to be secretly bought from the country dwellers.

If they ran low on money, they had to sell all the items they had in their homes to the Poles for whatever price they could get.

The kahal had to give aid to those people who were sent to forced labour and to support the poor who didn't have anything left to sell.

They also had to give bribes to the Gestapo. To keep up with this the kahal imposed heavy taxes on the Jews.

Every few days draconian new regulations came along, such as preventing Jews from going out of their homes on certain days, e. When the Germans arrived in town they turned the synagogue into a stable for the rural police who had established a based in Myslenice, and when they left the synagogue was turned into a warehouse for the corn that the country people brought to the town for the Nazi authorities.

The Jews were forced to burn all the Torah scrolls and holy books with their own hands. Unlike other small towns, the Nazis didn't destroy the synagogue structure and after the war it was used by Poles for different purposes.

Immediately after the War broke out, Poles broke into the Talmud Torah building and converted it into a residential home, and it serves this function to this day.

From the moment of the outbreak of War until mid several transports were organized from Myslenice to forced labour in Krakow and Debice. Only a very small handful managed to escape from these and return to town.

In August there was the final deportation to the transit camp in Skawina and from there to Belzec. There was a compulsory contribution demanded from the victims of the deportation to cover the costs of transporting them.

On a particular Saturday they procured wagons from the surrounding area and gave an order for Jews to appear at a given place. There they forced them to get into the wagons and under police escort armed with firearms, took them to Skawina where they stayed several days, after which they took them to the extermination camp in Belzec by train.

In the Yizkor Book of Kalwaria is a note that on 3. It therefore seems certain that the Myslenice Jews were found in this train and this date has been taken as that of their final deportation.

Furthermore I received the last news on this transport from my father on 25 th Elul, via a postcard sent from Basznia Dolna, the last railway station before Belzec.

My father knew the address of my brother who was in a work camp in Krakow and addressed this postcard to him. This had a postmark of 5.

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